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emFile - SLC1 NAND Flash Driver

NAND driver designed to support one or multiple SLC (Single-Level Cell) NAND flashes which require 1-bit ECC. 

About the Driver

The SLC1 NAND driver enables the file system to access raw SLC NAND flash and DataFlash devices. It provides a very high performance with a reduced RAM and ROM usage. The data reliability is ensured by making use of 1-bit ECC. The SLC1 NAND driver makes efficient use of the storage by mapping more than one logical sector to a physical page of the device. Small and large block NAND flash devices are supported which gives the user more choices in selecting a storage device.

Supported devices

In general, the driver supports almost all Single-Level Cell NAND flashes (SLC). This includes NAND flashes with page sizes of 512+16 and 2048+64 bytes. The table below shows the NAND flash devices that have been tested or are compatible with a tested device.

Parallel NAND Flash and Serial DataFlash Devices

Device Type Page Size [Bytes] Storage Capacity [Bits]
Atmel/Adesto
AT45BR3214B 512+16 32Mx1
AT45DB011B 256+8 1Mx1
AT45DB021B 256+8 2Mx1
AT45DB041B 256+8 4Mx1
AT45DB081B 256+8 8Mx1
AT45DB161B 512+16 16Mx1
AT45DB321C 512+16 32Mx1
AT45DB642 1024+32 64Mx1
AT45DCB002 512+16 16Mx1
AT45DCB004 512+16 32Mx1
AT45DB321E 512+16 32Mx1
Hynix
HY27xS08281A 512+16 16Mx8
HY27xS08561M 512+16 32Mx8
HY27xS08121M 512+16 64Mx8
HY27xA081G1M 512+16 128Mx8
HY27UF082G2M 2048+64 256Mx8
HY27UF084G2M 2048+64 512Mx8
HY27UG084G2M 2048+64 512Mx8
HY27UG084GDM 2048+64 512Mx8
Samsung
K9F6408Q0xx 512+16 8Mx8
K9F6408U0xx 512+16 8Mx8
K9F2808Q0xx 512+16 16Mx8
K9F2808U0xx 512+16 16Mx8
K9F5608Q0xx 512+16 32Mx8
K9F5608D0xx 512+16 32Mx8
K9F5608U0xx 512+16 32Mx8
K9F1208Q0xx 512+16 64Mx8
K9F1208D0xx 512+16 64Mx8
K9F1208U0xx 512+16 64Mx8
K9F1208R0xx 512+16 64Mx8
K9K1G08R0B 512+16 128Mx8
K9K1G08B0B 512+16 128Mx8
K9K1G08U0B 512+16 128Mx8
K9K1G08U0M 512+16 128Mx8
K9T1GJ8U0M 512+16 128Mx8
K9F1G08x0A 2048+64 256Mx8
K9F2G08U0M 2048+64 256Mx8
K9K2G08R0A 2048+64 256Mx8
K9K2G08U0M 2048+64 256Mx8
K9F4G08U0M 2048+64 512Mx8
K9F8G08U0M 2048+64 1024Mx8
Cypress (Spansion)
S34ML01G1 2048+64 128Mx8
S34ML02G1 2048+64 256Mx8
S34ML04G1 2048+64 512Mx8
ST-Microelectronics
NAND128R3A 512+16 16Mx8
NAND128W3A 512+16 16Mx8
NAND256R3A 512+16 32Mx8
NAND256W3A 512+16 32Mx8
NAND512R3A 512+16 64Mx8
NAND512W3A 512+16 64Mx8
NAND01GR3A 512+16 128Mx8
NAND01GW3A 512+16 128Mx8
NAND01GR3B 2048+64 128Mx8
NAND01GW3B 2048+64 128Mx8
NAND02GR3B 2048+64 256Mx8
NAND02GW3B 2048+64 256Mx8
NAND04GW3 2048+64 512Mx8
Toshiba
TC5816BFT 512+16 2Mx8
TC58V32AFT 512+16 4Mx8
TC58V64BFTx 512+16 8Mx8
TC58256AFT 512+16 32Mx8
TC582562AXB 512+16 32Mx8
TC58512FTx 512+16 64Mx8
TH58100FT 512+16 256Mx8
Micron
MT29F2G08AAB 2048+64 256Mx8
MT29F2G08ABD 2048+64 256Mx8
MT29F4G08AAA 2048+64 512Mx8
MT29F4G08BAB 2048+64 512Mx8
MT29F2G16AAD 2048+64 128Mx16

Support for Devices Not Available in the List

Most other NAND flash devices are compatible with one of the supported devices. Thus the driver can be used with these devices or may only need a little modification, which can be easily done. Get in touch with us, if you have questions about support for devices not in this list.

Performance and Resource Usage

The SLC1 NAND driver has been carefully designed to make effective use of RAM. The amount of RAM required by the driver depends on the runtime configuration and on the connected NAND flash device. In a typical embedded system which uses a 2 Gbit NAND flash, the driver requires less than 6 KBytes of RAM.

The SLC1 NAND driver has a very high read and write performance. For example, on an ARM7 CPU running at 48 MHz, the driver reaches a transfer speed of 3.8 MBytes/sec for writing and 5.9 MBytes/sec for reading. This makes the driver one of the fastest implementations on the market!

Theory of Operation

NAND flash devices are divided into physical blocks and physical pages. One physical block is the smallest erasable unit; one physical page is the smallest writable unit. Each physical block consists of multiple physical pages. On small block NAND flash devices one physical block contains typically 16, 32 or 64 pages and every physical page has a size of 528 bytes (512 data bytes + 16 spare bytes). Large block NAND flash devices contain blocks made up of 64 pages, each page containing 2112 bytes (2048 data bytes + 64 spare bytes).

The SLC1 NAND driver uses the spare bytes for the following purposes:

  • To check if the data status byte and block status are valid. If they are valid the driver uses this sector. When the driver detects a bad sector, the whole block is marked as invalid and its content is copied to a non-defective block.
  • To store/read an ECC (Error Correction Code) for data reliability. When reading a sector, the driver also reads the ECC stored in the spare area of the sector, calculates the ECC based on the read data and compares the ECCs. If the ECCs are not identical, the driver tries to recover the data, based on the read ECC. When writing to a page the ECC is calculated based on the data the driver has to write to the page. The calculated ECC is then stored in the spare area.

Error Correction Code (ECC)

The SLC1 NAND driver is highly speed optimized and offers a better error detection and correction than a standard memory controller ECC. The ECC is capable to correct a single bit error and to detect a 2-bit error. When a block for which the ECC is computed has 2 or more bit errors, the data cannot be corrected. Standard memory controllers compute an ECC for the complete blocksize (512 / 2048 bytes). The SLC1 NAND driver computes the ECC for data chunks of 256 bytes (e.g. a page with 2048 bytes is divided into 8 parts of 256 bytes), so the probability to detect and also correct data errors is much higher. This enhancement is realized with a very good performance. The ECC computation of the SLC1 NAND driver is highly optimized, so that a performance of about 18 Mbytes/second can be achieved on a ATM7 CPU running at 48 MHz.

We suggest the use of the the SLC1 NAND driver without the usage of a memory controller, because the performance of the driver is very high and the error correction is much better if it is controlled from driver side.